Gpg Edit Subkey


You can attach a subkey to any primary public/private key pair to use the same key pair to sign and encrypt files. To list the keys in your secret key ring: gpg --list-secret-keys. This allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke someone else's key. Their 2 year study concluded that key-touch login was great: scalable, efficient to use, less prone to user error, accessible for impaired users, providing solid security at negligible cost. sub = Subkey (you will never actually work with a public key for a Subkey, only the Master). gpg # verify everything is in order $ gpg --list-secret-keys # remove the subkeys from disk $ rm secret_subkeys. But, in this article, we'll continue our discussion about securing your keys and look at some tips for moving your subkeys to a specialized hardware device. GPG Celebrating 20 years. gpg 0xD93D03C13478D580 As with the first option, an export with only the subkeys has to be created with the command above. > > subkeys ('gpg --edit-key EF373BFA', addkey). If a custom comment is detected, a one time dialog is displayed for users, that allows them to easily remove it. To prolong the primary key, use expire command without any subkeys selected. How to setup automatic signing when using GPG At the Command> prompt, use the 'key 2' command to indicate that it is the second subkey that you want to edit. net is congested, please be patient, or use the copy and paste method below. So far I followed the "best practices" using this procedure. To make use of such a card you will first need a card reader. Exported secret keys are encrypted by default, however --export-options export-reset-subkey-passwd will produce an unprotected export:. In this post we're going to talk about splitting off your "primary" key and keeping it really safe, then using "subkeys" for every-day use. Don't forget to save at the last gpg> prompt:. One field we'll want to make sure to set is the url to fetch our public key from. The private portion of the master key proves that you are the owner and have authority over creation and revocation of subkeys. Now it's time to create subkeys. November 15, 2016 anandmandilwar Leave a comment Go to comments. $ gpg --output foo. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand “lsign" from --edit-key. gnupg_keyinfo (PECL gnupg >= 0. Here I'm using the hex key 0xDEADBEEF. ; A bunch of user identities (name, mail address, etc. This allows me to keep my keys somewhat portable (i. gpg - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool SYNOPSIS gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args] if it was created via --export-secret-subkeys). GPG will. you plan on signing messages sent to others or checking signatures of messages received by you. We then import the second subkey: gpg> key 2 gpg> keytocard And the last subkey: gpg> key 3 gpg> keytocard After all 3 keys have been imported we quit and save: gpg> quit Save changes? (y/N) y Now the subkeys have been moved from the live booted computer into the Yubikey. The output will be like below: pub 2048R/C5DB61BC 2015-04-21 uid Your Name (Optional Comment) sub 2048R/18C601D3 2015-04-21. I'm sorry if this is an obvious PEBKAC level issue. At this point you could stop, but it is most likely a good idea to change the passphrase as well. 16 to Ubuntu 18. [Solved] GnuPG Subkey Cloning on Edit. com gpg> list gpg> key 2 gpg> revkey. CLI wallet/daemon isolation with Qubes + Whonix. gpg Then you want to put the secret_key file offline, probably on a thumb drive that you always carry with you, or in a guarded safe. Yubikey can only handle a single thing at a time, and is a touch slow, so if you are using salt-ssh to run a command on multiple servers, and if that salt-ssh happens to use GPG to decrypt pillars, then you're going to be waiting hundreds of times longer than you would using the vanilla, parallelizable ssh agent and scdaemon-free gpg-agent. 7 Red Hat Produc. handbook-amd64. gpg Warning: If you forget to add the !, all of your subkeys will be exported. So far the article which has been the most helpful to me is not the two which are referred to in the FSF guide off-site links, but another article based on one of those. Remove the GPG home directory that only contains a single secret subkey: [email protected]:~$ rm -rf ~/. With this approach you’ll have your GPG secrets in a portable and. User input is noted in RED text. > gpg --edit-key You'll make a 2048 bit Signing key and you'll want to decide if it ever expires. Just make sure it is not readable for others. Generate an Authentication Subkey $ gpg2 --expert --edit-key KEYID. 7 of August 2015, encryption by Curve25519 is supported. In this example I would call gpg --edit-key 831F8A116F2624AF. Actual results: Receive error: Because "gpg: using subkey 9630FA38 instead of primary key D74908ED gpg: No trust check due to `--trust-model always' option gpg: [email protected] Frequently Asked Questions Table of contents. By default GPG creates one signing subkey (your identity) and one encryption subkey (how you receive messages intended for you). At the moment, I need to enter my gpg password three times (for signing, for decryption, for Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. If you are using version 2. (As an aside, generating keys on a Smartcard also forces you to trust the built-in Random Number. , from a USB stick); afterwards, execute gpg --card-status or gpg --card-edit with inserted card, which constructs the stubs for the secret subkeys in the keyring. gnupg; Restore the backup GPG home directory with all the secret keys:. Known problems with Yubikey 4. I then exported my public key with gpg2 -a --export [email protected] Additionally to the following commands, I suggest to also copy the gpg. The next step is to add a subkey that will be used for encryption. There are no public subkeys. gpg4usb is a very easy to use and small portable editor to encrypt and decrypt any text-message or -file you want. Best practices dictate that you use your primary key for important operations (creating and revoking subkeys, signing other people's keys, etc) and your subkeys for every. Use full fingerprint (40 characters) key ids to avoid key collisions. The primary keypair is used for signing. By default, GPG keys are created with one key for signing and another key for decryption. Create a regular GPG. Last time we talked about the importance of protecting your primary secret key as, if stolen, an attacker could take over your entire GPG identity. GPG will ask if you're certain. gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 2 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 2u pub 4096R/F7D12196 2013-09-22 Key fingerprint = 0059 EA3C CC54 D92F E203 DE29 12F2 C901 F7D1 2196 uid Patrick O'Connell sub 4096R/43DDE8B2 2013-09-22 sub 4096R/AA333CD9. When you use SSH, a program called ssh-agent is used to manage the keys. [Howto] Changing the expiry date of GPG keys GnuPG keys can have an expiry date. Here is the simple way of creating your public and private PGP keys on a Linux based machine (vm or physical). For example, the command key 2 selects the second subkey, and invoking key 2 again deselects it. Taking the result from 4) indikates that the subkeys on the Yubikey most probably have to be updated (despite the cryptographic information remains the same and only "meta-data" are changed). Run a gpg --list-keys to get your key fingerprint, then run gpg --expert --edit-key. asc $ gpg -a --export [email protected] When prompted where to store the key, select 1. gpg of each stage tarball. Generate GPG Subkeys on The Librem Key ¶ If you do decide that you want your GPG keys to only exist on the Librem Key, you can generate them directly on that device. Enter the GPG command: gpg --edit-key 1234ABC (where 1234ABC is the key ID of your key) Enter the command: toggle; Enter the command: keytocard; When prompted if you really want to move your primary key, enter y (yes). So this post gives my expirience on this topic, but isn't limited to Yubikey only and should apply to other OpenPGP cards as well. First we’ll add a subkey for encryption, this can be used to encrypt files, documents, or emails to the public key of any other person. Practical Public Key Cryptography. - Port several dialogs to GtkTemplate. --hidden-recipient-file file-F This option is similar to --hidden-recipient except that it encrypts to a key stored in the given file. I have been experiencing something rather odd with GnuPG. Subkey is a key-generation utility that is developed alongside Substrate. auto ; Copy secring. To revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command. The procedure to create such a key, including the steps to store the master key in a safe place and keep just the subkeys on your main keyring, is described in the guide to subkeys creation on the. gpg --edit-key gpgではsignの時には、uidの指定かkeyの指定しかできない。uidを指定したときは、secret keyringからuidを検索して、はじめに見つかったkeyを使うらしい。では、keyを指定した時のuidはどうやって決まるのかな。やっぱり、keyのprimary uidが使わ. You can either strip subkeys that should not be used using OpenKeychain’s edit key screen or explicitly select the right subkeys when exporting from gpg with gpg --export-secret-subkeys. If a custom comment is detected, a one time dialog is displayed for users, that allows them to easily remove it. Use gpg --edit-key command. ) gpg --edit-key passwd; Export all subkeys. Generate one subkey as "RSA (sign only)", and another with only authentication privileges using the "RSA (set your own capabilities)" option. A key that is imported is by default untrusted, to change this you need to go into key editing mode: gpg2 --edit-key test. Your primary key will have the capability of Certification. The masterkey has flags SC that it could be used for signing and certification. gnupg $ gpg --import < / media / phil / GNUPG / 9B554C36544C89BC_v3. In this post we’re going to talk about splitting off your “primary” key and keeping it really safe, then using “subkeys” for every-day use. subkey strategies create and employ additional subkey/s for signing, and if such a subkey is lost, it can be revoked without the necessity of revoking the parent public key. pub 4096R/6AA15948 2009-05-10 Key fingerprint = 7A33 ECAA 188B 96F2 7C91 7288 B346 4F89 6AA1 5948 uid Ana Beatriz Guerrero López uid Ana Beatriz Guerrero López sub. This command presents a menu which enables you to perform key-related taskes. The information here provides the minimum steps to configure gpg, create a master keypair with two identities and two subkeys (one to encrypt files and another to sign email) and copy the keys (without the private master key) to a new keyring for use on a desktop or laptop. $> gpg --edit-key 0x4F156AD7 [] gpg> addphoto # Add a picture to your key Pick an image to use for your photo ID. Lots of folks believe this is a limitation of the NEO that sucks and is unacceptable. After discussion on the gnupg mailing list we came to a mutual agreement and decided to remove this option. Are the following statements corre. GPG offers us a solution. After discussion on the gnupg mailing list we came to a mutual agreement and decided to remove this option. To increase the security of our key, we will use a special feature of OpenPGP: the subkeys. The next packet at off=3310 provides proof that the key 17118623766D56F8 is attached to our main public key 269E0DC4E3E4A5B8. Both keys follow the same process, except for the key-type option. changing the expiration date on a master key or any of its subkeys; The procedure for creating GPG subkey is as simple as follows: Create a regular GPG keypair. priv gpg: key 2886875B5AF6449D: "Sullivan Senechal " not changed gpg: key 2886875B5AF6449D: secret key imported gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: unchanged: 1 gpg: secret keys read: 1 gpg: secret keys unchanged: 1 $ gpg --edit-key. gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid. You can do this by running gpg2 -K --with-subkey-fingerprint. $ gpg --output foo. You can modify your public key's cipher preferences by interactively editing your key: gpg --interactive --edit-key [email protected] 0 for the key: gpg -k and gpg -K. edu --send-keys EA40ACC3 Importing Keys. Unlike gpg-agent, gnupg-pkcs11-scd supports more than one token available at the same time. Alternatively, if you don't want to carry a USB stick with your public key all the time, you should put the. --desig-revoke name Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. The image must be a JPEG file. The number explains the type of signature (see below). I added with adduid and trust save the relevant additional addresses running gpg --expert --edit-key myemail. First enter the GPG card edit menu:. In this article we will setup NixOS to use GPG-keys for SSH authentication, while storing the keys securely on a Yubikey. That measure serves as a safety not in case the secret key or password is lost. PSA: If anyone's email is broken because their GnuPG keyring automatically fetched a poisoned key (ie: Tor Browser key) following the certificate flooding attacks last month (CVE-2019-13050), here's a guide on how you can fix your gpg client and prevent this issue in the future (tech. gnupg/secring. gpg Warning: If you forget to add the !, all of your subkeys will be exported. Here is the log to generate signature key and encryption subkey. modulus and public exponent) (or a public key for another signature scheme) – the main key. If the subkey doesn't already exist then you must create it; Change the (Default) value of InprocServer32 to: dsound. gpg --edit lists both public subkeys and private subkeys but does not distinguish when the secret subkey is missing. gpg (both for primary and subkey). There are probably several graphical front-ends out there that might simplify this procedure, but, since graphical frontends are not usually cross-platform, I choose to use the command-line gpg utility. For such a scheme to provide any semblance of security, it is important that you confirm that the key used for. How to create a GPG key with subkeys. > In the BC API a PGPPublicKeyRing object represents a master key with its > subkeys. In addition, a GPG signature, which the system creates with cPanel, L. If your subkey is compromised, you only need to revoke the subkey, not your master key. Before getting into the actual notice allow me to capture exactly what I did: gpg -edit-key FEEEFA8F gpg> key 0 gpg> expire I then entered in the new expiry information for the primary signing key. A public PGP key (or "certificate") as seen on the key servers or in your PGP application is a bundle of several pieces of data: A public RSA key (i. gpg2 --import pub-revoke. txt --decrypt foo. So we have three subkeys. Now you have your first set of keys! Adding a subkey. I > used gpg --edit-key to extend the expiration date by a year, then I > sent it to one of the key servers, subkeys. usability | security | freedom How technology (fails to) make our lives easier Add a signing subkey [[email protected] ~]$ gpg --edit-key alice gpg (GnuPG) 1. gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 1 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u pub 4096R/612A0E98 2016-04-05 Key fingerprint = 69B2 6A27 62D0 65E6 6F59 6755 C76F DE50 612A 0E98 uid Jo-Philipp Wich (LEDE Signing Key) <> Note that this key cannot be used for. There are probably several graphical front-ends out there that might simplify this procedure, but, since graphical frontends are not usually cross-platform, I choose to use the command-line gpg utility. gpg> addkey. 16 to Ubuntu 18. , authenticate to a server via ssh. txt) or read book online for free. If you are using gnupg version 1. , from a USB stick); afterwards, execute gpg --card-status or gpg --card-edit with inserted card, which constructs the stubs for the secret subkeys in the keyring. For more reference around this project visit GNU. Create a New Subkey. Now we need to configure gpg-agent to enable ssh support, edit your ~/. OpenPGP lends itself well to having verified commits but also SSH, this post is a guide on setting up the key for this purpose. asc Dokumen_Rahasia_PgA. it's been reported, btw, that the key being served from pgp. Gpg List Keys. For the cards you need to create a second subkey for signing. Double click on your key to bring up the Key Inspector window, select Subkeys and click + to create a new one of type RSA (sign only) and of length 2048. The name or path of the subkey to create or open. This key can be used with HCM Fusion SaaS to encrypt/decrypt files as they are transferred to and from the UCM server. conf を以下のように設定します。 personal-digest-preferences SHA256 cert-digest-algo SHA256 default-preference-list SHA512 SHA384 SHA256 SHA224 AES256 AES192 AES CAST5 ZLIB BZIP2 ZIP Uncompressed 2. As we build a larger and more robust web of trust with our GnuPG/PGP keyrings, we inevitably fall into the situation where we need to remove a trust relationship. + gkr: - Try to display a username if available. - How to store the Auth, Sign and Encrypt subkeys in your yubikey. $ gpg -a --export-secret-subkeys [subkey id]! > /tmp/subkey. The article said to create a subkey, export the full master keypair (with subkey) to a safe place off the computer, and then remove the original signing subkey from the keypair, thus transforming the master keypair into a. A key that is imported is by default untrusted, to change this you need to go into key editing mode: gpg2 --edit-key test. This will move the signature subkey to the PGP signature slot of the YubiKey. I recently got a couple of Yubikey 5, the main reason is they are slowly getting popular for MFA, but they also support OpenPGP. gpg --edit-key 0xB804CF07 addkey choose 2 (DSA, sign only) or 5 (RSA, sign only) Set an expiration date for the existing encryption only subkey: gpg --edit-key 0xB804CF07 key 2 expire Remove private part of masterkey. According to the 2010 United States Census, Buskey is the 26212 nd most common surname in the United States, belonging to 933 individuals. They are still useful to decrypt data previously encrypted with the old key. Adding a new key requires an apt cache update (e. From the command line, edit your keys then “addkey” > gpg --edit-key. Pinentry (app-crypt/pinentry) is a helper application that gpg-agent uses to request the passphrase in a graphical window. gpg --gen-key. user $ gpg --list-key [email protected] Revoking a subkey. Redesigned UI for PolyGerrit based on material. GPG (developed by Werner Koch) is still free to use, free to distribute and free to modify. Available manuals were written in language average person is not able to understand. Note the asterisk (*) next to the first subkey that appeared after the @key [email protected] command. To revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command. Introduction PGP-GPG Subkey Management 1. For full support this requires. Don't do this if you don. As an example, Chloe has two user IDs and three subkeys. First list the keys:. key Now that we have a backup of our keys we can remove our master key from our server. You can help protect yourself from scammers by verifying that the contact is a Microsoft Agent or Microsoft Employee and that the phone number is an official Microsoft global customer service number. Use full fingerprint (40 characters) key ids to avoid key collisions. Before getting into the actual notice allow me to capture exactly what I did: gpg -edit-key FEEEFA8F gpg> key 0 gpg> expire I then entered in the new expiry information for the primary signing key. > gpg --card-status > gpg --card-edit gpg> help Once you would also like to use gpg on a computer connected to the internet you may need a OpenPGP encryption smart card like those from the FSFE (Free Software Foundation Europe) in order to prevent your key from being stolen. com At the prompt, type addkey. To add a mail identity simply type "adduid" and hit enter. When listing secret keys with gpg -K keys are marked with either ‘sec’ or ‘ssb’. I recently got two YubiKeys to try out another form of 2FA and to see how they work with my PGP setup (Enigmail and Thunderbird). Gpg List Keys. sig!3 = You see this after running the check command. gpg # verify everything is in order $ gpg --list-secret-keys # remove the subkeys from disk $ rm secret_subkeys. I protect my machines from direct attacks and monitor their logs, but my communications are almost always in cleartext and are typically stored on remote servers over which I have no control. Unfortunately, this doesn't work in this case. asc $ gpg -a --export [email protected] subkeyを作らないと、暗号化とか複合化できないよ!!的なこといってる。 このメッセージ、実際無視してやり続けたらできなかった( ゚ε゚ )プッ. In this section I describe how to extend or reset a key's expiration date using gpg from the command line. edu is the old one, not the cross-certified one. Create PGP public/private certificates using GPG In our post we will review how to generate generate a private/public key pair using GPG. Again the command is addkey to create a new key. Introduction: Cryptography (a)symmetric encryption Hands-on: Setup for mail PGP/GPG Trust model(s) Subkeys Hands-on: Subkeys 3. modulus and public exponent) (or a public key for another signature scheme) – the main key. When the key expires, it cannot be used to encrypt data anymore, and thus is a good way to enforce security measures. 2 of GnuPG (or later). To generate a full-fingerprint imported key: apt-key adv --list-public-keys --with-fingerprint --with-colons. gpg --export-secret-subkeys --armor private. Writing Property Values to the Registry. Just make sure it is not readable for others. gpg --import CFE50DE6144F5CA0-private-subkey. gpg --edit lists both public subkeys and private subkeys but does not distinguish when the secret subkey is missing. I add my keybase. Importing a key is very easy for both public and secret keys: gpg2 --import pub. If you specify both the key id and the URL with state=present, the task can verify or add the key as needed. gpg-key gpg -c private. changing the expiration date on a master key or any of its subkeys; The procedure for creating GPG subkey is as simple as follows: Create a regular GPG keypair. gpg4usb is a very easy to use and small portable editor to encrypt and decrypt any text-message or -file you want. The YubiKey can't store SSH keys, but can store GPG keys. dll; This is an example of what correctly configured CLSID keys look like in the registry editor:. 1 Released with LDAP Group Sync Filters, GPG Subkeys Support, and a Moderation Lock of Issues and Merge Requests. In this tutorial series, we're providing practical guidelines for using PGP. gnupg/secring. I add my keybase. I have a key, for which i created two subkeys, using addkey. Hint: You can always type help at the gpg> prompt to see all available commands. How to use a GPG key for SSH authentication. Part 1: Basic Concepts and Tools …. I am a little confused (as many others) about the concept of subkeys as related to the primary key. Use the gpg --edit-key command. Use full fingerprint (40 characters) key ids to avoid key collisions. 6 Posted by Anonymous (128. Despite having worked in an information security lab in undergrad, I've generally been pretty casual about my own security. In the above example the ID is 831F8A116F2624AF. the command "--edit-key" to generate a subkey for this purpose. GPG subkeys One raccomandation for OpenPGP usage is to have a master key that is only used to sign other keys and keep a subkey for daily usage. I did so doing the following: $ gpg --no-default-keyring --keyring. Add Subkeys. (Note that the private key material on the backup, including the private master key, will remain protected by the old passphrase. If you export the public key, delkey the subkey and then import the public key back again, the secret subkey will come back. x, macosx) just handles it & moves on. asc This will result in four files which may be stored in an encrypted zip file which lives on a USB flash drive. I added with adduid and trust save the relevant additional addresses running gpg --expert --edit-key myemail. EDIT: It's the EXACT SAME subkey self-signature packet as HPA's real subkey self-signature packet! Someone (by malice or mistake) manually added a subkey to HPA's public key and copied the signature from the other subkey directly onto the new subkey. You may want to > >>> use the command "--edit-key" to generate a secondary key for this > >>> purpose. Certify is essentially the ability to sign other keys. digest_algo – The hash digest to use. conf configuration file and make sure that the enable-ssh-support is present: default-cache-ttl 7200 max-cache-ttl 86400 enable-ssh-support. Finally, go back to editing your GPG key: gpg2 --expert --edit-key 0xAABBCC90DEADBEEF From this point you can use toggle to select each subkey (using key #), move them to the smartcard (keytocard), and deselect them (key #). Exported secret keys are encrypted by default, however --export-options export-reset-subkey-passwd will produce an unprotected export:. If you need to use different configuration files, you should make use of something like ‘ gpg. It may be possible to use gpg 1. Both keys follow the same process, except for the key-type option. modulus and public exponent) (or a public key for another signature scheme) – the main key. key Now that we have a backup of our keys we can remove our master key from our server. Currently most available smartcards support a maximum of 2048 bit RSA keys. Here are the steps I followed: # Generate primary key (I will use "--homedir a" and "--homedir b" for clarity, thanks Henry) $ gpg --homedir a --gen-key # Add subkey $ gpg --homedir a --edit-key. Unlike gpg-agent, gnupg-pkcs11-scd supports more than one token available at the same time. Now for the special sauce: let's add our new signing subkey. 04 with gpg v2. Add additional SubKeys to the KeyPair. The following keys are used to create detached binary signatures ending in. I added with adduid and trust save the relevant additional addresses running gpg --expert --edit-key myemail. gpg gpg2 --keyserver pgp. To make this warning message go away, use the GPG --edit-key command to set the trust level: gpg --edit-key "Brendan Kidwell" GPG will enter the interactive key editing mode. Now you have your first set of keys! Adding a subkey. By default, GPG keys are created with one key for signing and another key for decryption. The master key. $ gpg --export-secret-subkeys --armor --output. If you use GPG, you should use the Master and Subkey set up. Installing the Amazon ECS CLI. modulus and public exponent) (or a public key for another signature scheme) – the main key. I am unable to find if there is a way to modify a GPG key to add a second subkey using the unattended generation functions available, or if I'll have to add the subkey manually myself. it's been reported, btw, that the key being served from pgp. Currently most available smartcards support a maximum of 2048 bit RSA keys. But this can be fixed using the "gpg --edit-key" command. OpenPGP subkeys have many benefits (well summarized on this Debian wiki page), one of them being that if you have both an encryption subkey and a signing subkey (at least), you don’t need your master private key for your daily usage of OpenPGP—you will only need it for signing someone else’s key or to modify your own. Bases: gnupg. ascNext, edit your key and revoke the subkey you desire. gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid. modulus and public exponent) (or a public key for another signature scheme) – the main key. Introduction: Cryptography (a)symmetric encryption Hands-on: Setup for mail PGP/GPG Trust model(s) Subkeys Hands-on: Subkeys 3. Let's assume you already have an OpenPGP key such as the following (note the --expert flag, which will enable advanced key generation options): $ gpg2 --expert --edit-key alice Secret key is available. OPTIONS gpg features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default. Advice on subkeys needed, please I read that master keys should not be stored on portable computers in case of loss/theft. gpg in the same location using the default AES256 algorithm. Part 1/2: Email Encryption with the Yubikey-NEO, GPG and Linux I’d like to explain the basics of asymmetric encryption and then document my experience with setting up encryption keys with GnuPG (v2) and a Yubikey as a smart card interface to securely store secret keys using Linux. Unlike gpg-agent, gnupg-pkcs11-scd supports more than one token available at the same time. Public Function CreateSubKey (subkey As String) As RegistryKey. The image must be a JPEG file. Key management: $ gpg --edit-key user_ID # "help" for help, interactive $ gpg -o file--exports # export all keys to file $ gpg --imports file # import all keys from file $ gpg --send-keys user_ID # send key of user_ID to keyserver $ gpg --recv-keys user_ID # recv. Most OpenPGP keys have at least one subkey. Generate an Encryption Subkey $ gpg2 --expert --edit-key KEYID. In this section I describe how to extend or reset a key's expiration date using gpg from the command line. In order to force a specific subkey to be used when signing for Git, you would need to use the ! suffix to the GnuPG key-id, e. gpg-key gpg -c private. gpg --list-keys. $ gpg2 --expert --edit-key 71735D23 Secret key is available. Both keys follow the same process, except for the key-type option. While a Mac is not a requirement, if you're using Windows, the steps will likely be different. First, and most important: make a backup of your key. Select the subkey you want to revoke, using the command "key 2" (or whatever subkey it is) and then enter the command "revkey" and follow the prompts. First enter the GPG card edit menu:. Don't do this if you don. In order to make gpg-agent happy, gnupg-pkcs11-scd always returns the same card serial number to gpg-agent. Keys can be generated on the Smartcard from the gpg --card-edit menu, but we won’t be using that method because it doesn’t allow us to have offline backups, which would be helpful to have if case our Smartcard were to meet an untimely demise. --desig-revoke name Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. Other people's encrypted messages are encrypted to the public subkey. On the latest and greatest versions of gpg, you won't see the last couple of lines here; on versions before 1. - How to store the Auth, Sign and Encrypt subkeys in your yubikey. When I run my encryption routine, I have to look for the key id of the subkey and use it for encryption. gpg (both for primary and subkey). The Apache Software Foundation : How To Transition To A Longer Key ( archived ). Best practices dictate that you use your primary key for important operations (creating and revoking subkeys, signing other people's keys, etc) and your subkeys for every. Type gpg edit-key myuid to edit your key, type addkey to add a subkey to it, and choose your preferred algorithm, key size, and expiry options (Figure 2). This command presents a menu which enables you to perform key-related taskes. gpg and has fingerprint 3B6B 548A DE5E A3BD D33C EEF0 45F2 9641. If you only want to revoke one subkey, you need to follow a slightly different procedure. Available manuals were written in language average person is not able to understand. For full support this requires. A couple of things to keep in mind, however: you will be moving the encryption and signing subkeys on to the card;. The All-Powerful Primary Key. Most of this series has been independently translated into Portuguese by Rafael Beraldo. d directory. It is recommended to always build the ncurses version. com for 2nd nuLL-meet in dharamshaLa 19th apriL 2014 2. Using --passphrase-fd 3 (to tell gpg to read the passphrase from "stdin") apparently worked in older versions of "gpg" (where "stdin" was file descriptor 3, it seems) but does not work in newer versions of "gpg" (we used rpmsign on Ubuntu, and upgrading from Ubuntu 14. Since we will be removing the first, master private key, you need to create a subkey for signing if e. - Use gpgme_op_create_subkey() over gpgme_op_edit(). 2 version of GnuPG. edu > bepstein. Validate with twice y and save your key with save. x, macosx) just handles it & moves on. txt) or read book online for free. Edit /etc/apt/sources. Alternatively, you can use a different keys or different subkeys on each computer. I generated my GPG keys on a LiveCD and backed them up to a USB Drive. Once the key has been generated, you will need to type save to save it - not just quit. To revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command. Let's edit the key: [email protected]:~$ gpg --edit-key 7AC1F9A2 While we selected the key ID of the subkey in the command above, we need to select it again in the interactive mode. pub 4096R/6AA15948 2009-05-10 Key fingerprint = 7A33 ECAA 188B 96F2 7C91 7288 B346 4F89 6AA1 5948 uid Ana Beatriz Guerrero López uid Ana Beatriz Guerrero López sub. gpg: DBG: finish_lookup: checking key 53BDFBE3 (all)(req_usage=2) gpg: DBG: checking subkey D1EE9467 gpg: DBG: subkey has expired gpg: DBG: checking subkey 5AEA89EC gpg: DBG: subkey has expired gpg: DBG: no suitable subkeys found - trying primary gpg: DBG: primary key usage does not match: want=2 have=d gpg: DBG: no suitable key found - giving up. person @ example. Here I'm using the hex key 0xDEADBEEF. being able to use your SSH key on a remote system) and not having to remember passwords. The Yubikey NEO can store keys up to 2048 bits while the Yubikey 4 can store keys up to 4096 bits. Using GPG for SSH access on GitHub. gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 1 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u pub 4096R/612A0E98 2016-04-05 Key fingerprint = 69B2 6A27 62D0 65E6 6F59 6755 C76F DE50 612A 0E98 uid Jo-Philipp Wich (LEDE Signing Key) <> Note that this key cannot be used for. gpg --delete-secret-key "User Name" This deletes the secret key from your secret key ring. First we'll add a subkey for encryption, this can be used to encrypt files, documents, or emails to the public key of any other person. The Yubikey is a small USB token which can be used for OTP, U2F and CCID. Figure 2: Generating an encryption subkey. Other people's encrypted messages are encrypted to the public subkey. The output will be like below: pub 2048R/C5DB61BC 2015-04-21 uid Your Name (Optional Comment) sub 2048R/18C601D3 2015-04-21. key of user_ID from keyserver $ gpg --list-keys user_ID # list keys of user_ID $ gpg --list-sigs user_ID. gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid. Unfortunately, this doesn't work in this case. Adding a new key requires an apt cache update (e. Add Subkeys. , authenticate to a server via ssh. The value consists of 3 colon delimited fields: The first is the path to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of the gpg-agent and the protocol version which should be set to 1. Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key. The suggested usage of GPG is to create a subkey for encryption. ) GPG will put an asterisk by the selected key. gpg gpg2 --keyserver pgp. gitconfig file:. asc $ gpg -a --export [email protected] 10, you will need to generate a sub-key of this key to use for encryption. class gnupg. To import our gpg keys, run: sudo gpg --keyserver subkeys. gpg is invoked by enigmail with the -u / --local-user argument, completely overriding my settings in gpg. > gpg --card-status > gpg --card-edit gpg> help Once you would also like to use gpg on a computer connected to the internet you may need a OpenPGP encryption smart card like those from the FSFE (Free Software Foundation Europe) in order to prevent your key from being stolen. These are the same:. First list the keys:. (y/N) y # reimport the subkeys $ gpg --import secret_subkeys. Here is the log to generate signature key and encryption subkey. You can bring the ID back up by calling gpg -K. Change the expiration date of a GPG key. The first thing to do is to download and install gpg4win. Exported secret keys are encrypted by default, however --export-options export-reset-subkey-passwd will produce an unprotected export:. person @ example. asc sec 4096R / AA79CCAE 2017-08-23 Alice Person (alice) < alice. Some smartcards support longer keys. I wanted to create a GPG key - so far so good. See Copying a Public Key Manually to a file if you wish to email it to individuals or groups. Generate a 4096 bits RSA/RSA keypair: Master key for signature and certification (SC flags) & subkey for encryption (E flag only). Due to weaknesses found with the SHA1 hashing algorithm Debian prefers to use keys that prefer SHA2. Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key. First enter the GPG card edit menu:. The primary. You will need to use the toggle command to switch from editing the public keys to editing the private keys. ValueName: The value name, under the selected key, to delete. To use a GPG key, you'll use a similar program, gpg-agent, that manages GPG keys. When listing (public) keys with gpg -k keys are marked with ‘pub’ or ‘sub’. Locate and click the following subkey in the registry: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer; Note: If this subkey does not exist, create it. Xeffyr's key is available as the file xeffyr. Rather than use GPG and SSH keys housed on individual machines, I embed my GPG private keys on Yubikeys by default. modulus and public exponent) (or a public key for another signature scheme) – the main key. - Remove ctrl+f1 shortcut. How to use a GPG key for SSH authentication. Phil Zimmermann (Developer) wrote PGP. [Solved] GnuPG Subkey Cloning on Edit. This allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke someone else's key. changing the expiration date on a master key or any of its subkeys; The procedure for creating GPG subkey is as simple as follows: Create a regular GPG keypair. # gpg --edit-key View & Copy It will display information about the key and come to the command prompt. This subkey is a separate key that, for all intents and purposes, is signed by your primary key and transmitted at the same time. The Yubikey is a small USB token which can be used for OTP, U2F and CCID. But, in this article, we’ll continue our discussion about securing your keys and look at some tips for moving your subkeys to a specialized hardware device. I created a sign and a encrypt subkey with no expiry (considering that they ll be revoked on the fly from the primary whenever it make sense). --edit-key. Towards that end, you may first import the master key's public key (e. From the command line, edit your keys then “addkey” > gpg --edit-key. To move the master key to the card, "toggle" out of toggle mode then back in, then immediately run 'keytocard'. d directory. Available manuals were written in language average person is not able to understand. The number explains the type of signature (see below). November 15, 2016 anandmandilwar Leave a comment Go to comments. You will then be prompted for the following: Real name: You probably want to enter your real name here, but you might have a pseudonym which you want to add for convenience. gpg4usb is a very easy to use and small portable editor to encrypt and decrypt any text-message or -file you want. The interface is similar to the interface used when creating an initial keypair. asc' gpg: RSA/SHA1 signature from. 5 or higher OS (I’ve only tested this on RHEL 6. 0 for the key: gpg -k and gpg -K. gpg (both for primary key and subkey) and private part is in. gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 1 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u gpg: next trustdb check due at 2016-11-03 pub 4096R/144A027B 2013-11-04 [expires: 2016-11-03] Key fingerprint = 6E95 9C3A 35E7 6783 2BF4 BA32 21BB 9DA3 144A 027B uid John Doe At prompt, add a new subkey, select signing or encrypting, keysize, and expiry: gpg> addkey Please select what kind of key you want: (3) DSA (sign only) (4) RSA (sign only) (5) Elgamal (encrypt only) (6) RSA (encrypt only) Your selection? 4 RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long. gpg --search [mail address] gpg --recv-key [key-id] Edit Keys. A key with Certify can be "parent" to subkeys, create new subkeys, and edit existing ones. 04 with gpg v2. 04 with gpg v2. The short answer is that having separate subkeys makes key management a lot easier and protects you in certain occasions, for example you can create a new subkey when. Enter the GPG command: gpg --edit-key 1234ABC (where 1234ABC is the key ID of your key) Enter the command: toggle; Enter the command: keytocard; When prompted if you really want to move your primary key, enter y (yes). Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. gpg --edit-key D3CEAB0F Few example of performing --edit-key operation. subkeyを作らないと、暗号化とか複合化できないよ!!的なこといってる。 このメッセージ、実際無視してやり続けたらできなかった( ゚ε゚ )プッ. The GPG master key will be used use to generate subkeys that will go on the Yubikey. This will move the signature subkey to the PGP signature slot of the YubiKey. subkeyつくるよ。 鍵の種類はRSA(暗号化のみ). GWT UI is deprecated, and PolyGerrit is now the default UI. Rather than use GPG and SSH keys housed on individual machines, I embed my GPG private keys on Yubikeys by default. Pull out the Yubikey, delete the keys again via gpg --delete-secret-and-public-keys , then import your public key and plugin your Yubikey. gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 2 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 2u pub 2048R/28C0CD7C 2011-05-24 Key fingerprint = 0B4D C763 D57B ADBB 1870 A978 BDEE 4A35 28C0 CD7C uid Niibe Yutaka sub 2048R/F01E19B7 2011-05-24 $. Revoking a subkey. With this approach you’ll have your GPG secrets in a portable and. When editing a key (gpg --edit-key KEYID) you may see: sub* = The star indicates the particular Subkey is selected for editing. Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Read more → Recent Posts. See the example in the image below. Run sudo gpg2 --no-default-keyring --keyring ~/. Now we have three subkeys. Lots of folks believe this is a limitation of the NEO that sucks and is unacceptable. OK the difference between [email protected] GPG subkeys marked with the "authenticate" capability can be used for public key authentication with SSH. Certify is essentially the ability to sign other keys. Best practices dictate that you use your primary key for important operations (creating and revoking subkeys, signing other people's keys, etc) and your subkeys for every. Let's review these possibilities in detail. pub 1024D/26B6AAE1 created: 1999-06-15 expires: never trust: -/u sub 2048g/0CF8CB7A created: 1999-06-15 expires: never. gpg> keytocard gpg> key 1 ##we need to deselect the key 1 before we select key 2 gpg> key 2 gpg> keytocard gpg> key 2 gpg> key 3 gpg> keytocard gpg> save Now the subkeys are in the card and not present on your pc anymore. Generating the master key. You could also specify an email address like [email protected] We then import the second subkey: gpg> key 2 gpg> keytocard And the last subkey: gpg> key 3 gpg> keytocard After all 3 keys have been imported we quit and save: gpg> quit Save changes? (y/N) y Now the subkeys have been moved from the live booted computer into the Yubikey. GPG subkey revokation and add: $ gpg --import key. michaelaltfield. InstallShield creates a nested key structure where Key 3 is a subkey of Key 2, which is a subkey of Key 1. - Strip verbose 'Network secret for' prefix. Finally, go back to editing your GPG key: gpg. Since we will be removing the first, master private key, you need to create a subkey for signing if e. Towards that end, you may first import the master key's public key (e. 04 Trusty Tahr) installation for GPG encryption and SSH authentification. Type save to exit. I won't go into detail on how to create GPG keys, but I will assume that you have a masterkey and three subkeys: One for signing [S] (e. Since I'm using Keybase and starting with a 4096 bit key, one solution is to make separate 2048 bit subkeys for Authentication and Signing, etc. A few weeks ago I created my new GPG/PGP key with subkeys and a few people asked me why and how. But, in this article, we'll continue our discussion about securing your keys and look at some tips for moving your subkeys to a specialized hardware device. subkeyつくるよ。 鍵の種類はRSA(暗号化のみ). The rationale for creating separate subkeys for signing and encryption is written very nicely in the subkeys page of the debian wiki. Maybe this isn't what Greta wants, so go back into gpg --edit-key greta and Type 2 to select UID 2. Gpg: Allow updating the expiration time of multiple subkeys at. To add a subkey: Select the key you want to add the subkey to from the list. Second, edit the key and revoke the sub-key that I don’t want anymore: gpg --edit-key [email protected] gpg> list # list the keys gpg> xyz # select the unwanted key gpg> revkey # generate a revocation certificate gpg> save Once done, I can export/back-up the result and finally make sure to send the updated key to the key servers. GPG will ask if you're certain. 4 but with gpg-agent compiled from gpg2. GnuPG in debian unfortunately defaults to a 2048-bit RSA key as the primary with SHA1 as the preferred hash. Now we can export the (common) private encryption and (separate) private signing subkey for each device. Creating a new GPG key I wanted to renew my GPG key for some time and after reading the latest news , I finally have generated a new key today. Private GPG Key Keybase. Optionally, change the passphrase protecting the subkeys: gpg --edit-key YOURMASTERKEYID passwd. Finally, go back to editing your GPG key: gpg2 --expert --edit-key 0xAABBCC90DEADBEEF From this point you can use toggle to select each subkey (using key #), move them to the smartcard (keytocard), and deselect them (key #). gnupg $ gpg --import < / media / phil / GNUPG / 9B554C36544C89BC_v3. 4 caused the same issue). Used by Context. I opted for a 200x200 grayscale JPEG for my photo and ran it jpegoptim with jpegoptim -strip-all photo. gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid. I got a brand new yubikey neo and wanted to get it running on my Mint 17 MATE(based on Ubuntu 14. tl;dr: PEBKAC. If you only want to revoke one subkey, you need to follow a slightly different procedure. edu --send-keys EA40ACC3 Importing Keys. txt --decrypt testen. - Small UI changes to KeyProperties. gnupg/secring. Continue then with an export as described above. Note that GnuPG is not very user-friendly there. This allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke someone else's key. Renames GPGPreferences to GPG Suite. Creating GPG Keys and Signing 3 rd-party (or custom) RPM packages: Because RHEL 5. > gpg --card-status > gpg --card-edit gpg> help Once you would also like to use gpg on a computer connected to the internet you may need a OpenPGP encryption smart card like those from the FSFE (Free Software Foundation Europe) in order to prevent your key from being stolen. Some of the more obvious benefits include agent forwarding (i. When I run my encryption routine, I have to look for the key id of the subkey and use it for encryption. In this article we will setup NixOS to use GPG-keys for SSH authentication, while storing the keys securely on a Yubikey. Then, a bit before your encryption key expires, you should add a new encryption subkey to your key with a new expiration date. Hardening PGP using GnuPG and Yubikey gpg {card-edit mode, admin commands enabled multiple cards per key, each has a unique subkey (code signing!) Roman. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand “lsign" from --edit-key. Release notes for Gerrit 3. When prompted where to store the key, select 1. Distributing an encryption subkey. For more reference around this project visit GNU. Used gpg --edit-key to revoke the subkeys that would be on the device. To revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command. subkey is null. Take advantage of subkeys. gnupg/pubring. Subkeys and user IDs may also be deleted. - Remove ctrl+f1 shortcut. When typing gpg --version and make sure it’s 2. To edit the key, you will need to run gpg --edit-key where is the ID of the key you just generated. $ gpg -a --export-secret-keys [email protected] Use gpg's edit command like this: $ gpg --edit-key xyzxyzxy The key listing will be shown. If you use a very large picture, your key will become very large as well! Keeping the image close to 240x288 is a good size to use. 2 shows created date as expired date Migration User 11-29-2013 07:43 PM Hi We use command line 10. Part 1: Basic Concepts and Tools …. Update expiry of GPG keys with separate master key. + gkr: - Try to display a username if available. For RSA encryption you must create either DSA or RSA sign-only key as master and then add an RSA encryption subkey with gpg --edit-key. Subkeys in GPG for a YubiKey Carlo Hamalainen Uncategorized December 31, 2016 13 Minutes I recently got two YubiKeys to try out another form of 2FA and to see how they work with my PGP setup (Enigmail and Thunderbird). A public PGP key (or "certificate") as seen on the key servers or in your PGP application is a bundle of several pieces of data: A public RSA key (i. gnupg/gpg-agent. gpg is invoked by enigmail with the -u / --local-user argument, completely overriding my settings in gpg. At the moment, I need to enter my gpg password three times (for signing, for decryption, for Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. gpg 0xD93D03C13478D580 As with the first option, an export with only the subkeys has to be created with the command above. I like to do things to do with computers and occasionally write about those things. Description. So far the article which has been the most helpful to me is not the two which are referred to in the FSF guide off-site links, but another article based on one of those. Starting with GPG and YubiKey 09 Mar 2019 #GPG What is public-key cryptography? There are many guides available online which describe the basics of public-key cryptography. All keys are 4096 bit RSA with no expiry. There are probably several graphical front-ends out there that might simplify this procedure, but, since graphical frontends are not usually cross-platform, I choose to use the command-line gpg utility. We will generate three keys, one with Signing, one with Encryption and one with Authentication capability. asc To import the subkey! If you want to revoke it at any time, just edit your master key again, and then type revkey. gpg-key gpg -c private. chloe% gpg --edit-key chloe Secret key is available. subkeyを作らないと、暗号化とか複合化できないよ!!的なこといってる。 このメッセージ、実際無視してやり続けたらできなかった( ゚ε゚ )プッ. When you add a user-id or subkey, it is self-signed with your master key. txt --decrypt testen. For me, this doesn't appear to be a problem; gpg (1. subkey is null. gpg> save. (Variously attributed to Andy Grove and Bill Gates. The Yubikey is a small USB token which can be used for OTP, U2F and CCID. [#94] Removes the option to edit the gnupg. You're altering your preferences so you need to sign them with the secret key again. From here, it is easy to identify your specific authentication subkey using gpg2 -K --with-keygrip. Run a gpg --list-keys to get your key fingerprint, then run gpg --expert --edit-key. sub = Subkey (you will never actually work with a public key for a Subkey, only the Master). If you see gpg (GnuPG) 2. In this post we're going to talk about splitting off your "primary" key and keeping it really safe, then using "subkeys" for every-day use. Due to weaknesses found with the SHA1 hashing algorithm Debian prefers to use keys that prefer SHA2. Digression: Master and Subkeys. To get gpg-agent to handle requests from SSH, you need to enable support by adding the line enable-ssh-support to the ~/. [Solved] GnuPG Subkey Cloning on Edit I've been searching for hours today to figure out what I have either done wrong or misunderstood. asc $ gpg -a --export [email protected] com Command> fpr Command> sign Command> check Command> quit Renovar key privada La idea es que la key privada tiene una fecha de caducación que es definida cuando es creada. gpg -K lists only private keys. 1) A “Quick” Generate Primary and Secondary Key task that only asks the user for the UID and password and creates an rsa4096 primary key, an rsa2048 secondary key and an rsa2048 laptop signing subkey. A public PGP key (or "certificate") as seen on the key servers or in your PGP application is a bundle of several pieces of data: A public RSA key (i. In order to make gpg-agent happy, gnupg-pkcs11-scd always returns the same card serial number to gpg-agent. /gnupg-test --export-secret-subkeys --armor --output secret-subkeys. gpg by default (at least it seems on my system --- using RSA), upon gpg --gen-key creates a masterkey and a subkey. Again the command is addkey to create a new key. GPG subkeys One raccomandation for OpenPGP usage is to have a master key that is only used to sign other keys and keep a subkey for daily usage. gpg: Signature made Wed Sep 13 02:08:25 2006 PDT using DSA key ID F3119B9A gpg: Can't check signature: public key not found error: could not verify the tag 'v1. gpg> keytocard gpg> key 1 ##we need to deselect the key 1 before we select key 2 gpg> key 2 gpg> keytocard gpg> key 2 gpg> key 3 gpg> keytocard gpg> save Now the subkeys are in the card and not present on your pc anymore. To revoke a subkey, revoke it from gpg's interface: $ gpg2 --edit-key [email protected] The new expiry date for the main signing key as well as the new encryption subkey is 2 years from today. Grimler's key is available as the file grimler. For RSA encryption you must create either DSA or RSA sign-only key as master and then add an RSA encryption subkey with gpg --edit-key. gpg --import user-example. redhat rhsa 2020 1544 01 important ansible security and bug fix update 10 11 17?rss An update for ansible is now available for Ansible Engine 2. gpg assumes that the key in this file is fully valid. Then, a bit before your encryption key expires, you should add a new encryption subkey to your key with a new expiration date. > gpg --card-status > gpg --card-edit gpg> help Once you would also like to use gpg on a computer connected to the internet you may need a OpenPGP encryption smart card like those from the FSFE (Free Software Foundation Europe) in order to prevent your key from being stolen. edu > bepstein. alwga5m5gu, sq13ux2wmfhy6, nlvmgphb6alx, agtgo1s4j07a, wdmojz254nrz, dfvanazfq1, 3raeelakcd2h, rt566ptrvx, pu7siexfirr, 3uj6z2w8enaw, d10g7qlfkbg, 9ugpvmwkpiwz, o5vsncv0wjv4, q321hpn8zoh74w, e5w4trlg09op, g6hy802rivxkqaq, l6tffqlsd3sq5lp, 0cvx8xtunqwmmwq, fdionn72x0251dl, noqvjc3o72ha, ia5ryg4718, ohnp07c0p6, 0fjedsgxq9sfufz, 3k3lre3lk24, quvomlryrvr7iv, mzjw7cxgbktpl6a, zb8rk67sw2, sfzy13lkzwfpjne, 01v7fgvn6o, byy5flew3d7im, wfsqqb0yzku9